There is a developing need for X-ray inspection technology. The AOI equipment can inspect solder joints and components visible to camera inspection, but some components are bottom terminated (BTC), such as QFNs, BGAs, and LGAs. In order to ascertain that the components are fitted appropriately and soldered appropriately, X-ray technology must be utilized.
X-ray technology ranges from low power, simple machines for looking through thin PCBs with only a number of BTCs to high power, in-line X-ray machines for high volume, high speed operations with many BTCs. The collection of appropriate technology should be based on the application needs, and the scale and power of the gear.
Several generally available x-ray devices monitor voids in solder joints as well as examines void percentages in ground paths for QFNs and LGAs. The voiding in the ground route of these pieces is particularly crucial, as that is also the heat path for these devices, and a large portion of voids could cause premature collapse. Angle viewing and 3D / CT options can also help with defect detection. As PCBs get more complicated, the ability to identify process faults in BTCs will be extremely relevant. A 3D / CT option allows users to see the Z axis to visualize the connection between the PCB pad and component solder. This can identify Head in Pillow (HIP) defects which are among the most complex process issues to detect.
In order to identify solder joint problems, x-ray machines usually offer high magnifications as solder balls and connection points are very small. In rare instances, over 2000X magnification is needed to detect solder joint flaws. When examining for solder joint faults, full rotational viewing is also beneficial. Shorts, misalignments, solder bridging, as well as other gross concerns should be quickly detected with x-ray technology. The majority of equipment offers software packages for detecting quality problems with BGAs, QFNs, through-hole components, and other commonly examined parts. Restronics Southern California salespeople can help you in selecting the optimal x-ray equipment size based on your needs and usage.
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